Many types of cancer have very straightforward names and locations, for example: breast cancer occurs in the breast, lung cancer occurs in the lungs, but lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, a malignant tumour originating in the lymphohematopoietic system, which manifests itself as painless enlargement of lymph nodes, enlargement of the liver and spleen, and spreads throughout the body in all organs.Lymphoma can easily lead to life-threatening conditions if not treated in time.

I. Lymph and Immunity

Antibodies are protein markers used by the body to recognise invading pathogens. When the invader is recognised, the immune system begins to seek and destroy it. The lymphatic system then flushes out the harmless waste products and restores the body's health.

If your lymphatic system is destroyed and disturbed, waste products within your body will not be eliminated, which further compromises your immune system. Without the protection of your immune system, any ordinary flu will be fatal. And since we have lymph nodes all over our body, including the brain, bone marrow and spleen, you can imagine the consequences if the lymphatic system is destroyed.

II. Classification of lymphomas

Lymphoma cells are divided into two categories: non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL).

Hodgkin's lymphoma usually starts in the armpit, neck or chest. However, it is easy to detect at an early stage of diagnosis and Hodgkin's lymphoma is less frequent than non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is much more difficult to diagnose early on, as well as difficult for doctors to predict where it will spread next. As a result, patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are often diagnosed in the later stages of the disease. Most patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma have a lower survival rate than those with Hodgkin's lymphoma.

III. Symptoms of Lymphoma

The distribution characteristics of the lymphatic system make lymphoma a systemic disease that can invade almost any tissue and organ in the body. Therefore, the clinical manifestations of malignant lymphoma have certain common features, while at the same time there are great differences according to different pathological types, sites of invasion and ranges.

Superficial lymph node onset is predominant, and HL is more common than NHL, with the neck being the most prevalent, followed by the axilla and groin, and is usually painless, enlarging over time, and being on the moderately firm side.Deep lymph nodes are more common than mediastinal lymph nodes, and enlarged lymph nodes can compress superior vena cava and cause superior vena cava syndrome, or compress trachea, oesophagus and laryngeal reentrant nerve and cause dyspnoea, dysphagia and hoarseness.

Malignant lymphoma originating from retroperitoneal lymph nodes, most common in NHL, can cause long-term unexplained fever, which makes clinical diagnosis difficult.

Lymphoma that starts in the pharyngeal lymphatic ring is most common in NHL and is often accompanied by sore throat, foreign body sensation in the throat, breathlessness and hoarseness.

Lymphoma can develop in any part of the body except lymphatic tissues, with gastrointestinal disease being the most common. Stomach and high-grade small intestinal lymphoma will present with epigastric pain, vomiting, etc. Small intestinal lymphoma develops in the ileocecal region, and is often accompanied by chronic diarrhoea and intestinal obstruction.

IV. Lymphoma treatment

Lymphomas are highly heterogeneous and therefore vary greatly in treatment, with different pathological types of lymphomas differing greatly in both intensity of treatment and prognosis.

1. Radiation and chemotherapy

While radiation and chemotherapy may be effective treatments for lymphoma, both can have serious side effects. And because patients are unable to eat at all, they may suffer extreme weight loss, leaving their bodies in a state of extreme weakness for long periods of time.

2. Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy's regulating medications are completely artificial, and because immunotherapy alters the immune system, it can lead to side effects caused by differences in immunity or healthy cells that the immune system attacks. These include digestive problems, coughing, nausea, fatigue and fever. In extreme cases, immunotherapy can lead to life-threatening side effects.

3. Stem cell transplantation

Stem cell transplants may cause your body to become more susceptible to infections. You may also face some life-threatening problems if your body resists the new stem cells.

4. Medical cannabis treatment

Cannabis is a rising star in the medical world, and in all of the recent studies on the use of medical marijuana, medical marijuana treatment does indeed destroy cancer cells. Although there is very little consensus in the medical community, it is widely accepted that medical marijuana does help to improve and defeat lymphoma in the human body, as well as stimulating the patient's appetite and reducing symptoms such as nausea and vomiting that often accompany lymphoma treatment.

V. Lymphoma and cannabis

Research into whether cannabis can directly combat lymphoma has not yet resulted in any examples of clinical treatment. However, there are some studies that provide good reasoning and evidence for the direct effectiveness of cannabis against Hodgkin's lymphoma.

In a 2013 study published in the journal PLOS ONE, scientists found that the surfaces of Hodgkin's lymphoma cells are covered with cannabinoid receptors, and that these CB1 receptors mean that cannabinoids may bind to or affect the lymphomas, making them qualitatively different.

And in the meantime, experiments using cannabis compounds to treat other forms of cancer have all yielded promising results, and according to the research, four main ways in which cannabis works on different types of cancer cells have been identified:

1. as an anti-proliferative agent, cannabis compounds can inhibit and slow down the growth of tumours. 

2. cannabis compounds can interrupt the metastasis of cancer cells by intercepting them.

3. Cannabis compounds can block the transport of nutrients to the tumour in the blood vessels, and the lack of food supply makes the tumour cells less active.

4. Cannabis compounds can cause the cancer cells' own healing system to self-destruct, causing permanent damage to the cancer cells.

While it remains to be seen whether cannabis can be effective in directly fighting Hodgkin's lymphoma, it is undeniable that it can help cancer patients in many other ways. And it is an indisputable fact that proper use of cannabis and its extracts can alleviate the symptoms of lymphoma and improve a person's overall quality of life.

In 2005, researchers studied the effects of cannabinoid receptors on lymphoma cells (MCL). In order to delve further into how cannabinoid receptors affect MCL, they did research and found that the viability of MCL was reduced when activating cannabinoids with CB1 receptors and when activating cannabinoids with CB2 receptors. The study also found that CB1 can help kill MCL cells, and after repeated trials to be able to pinpoint the results of the test, the team came to the conclusion that cannabinoid receptors may have a crucial role in treating cancers such as lymphoma.

And this fact has been seen in many lymphoma patients.


From many examples and studies, it is clear that cannabis can indeed be a versatile medical aid for cancer patients, while more and more countries have allowed the legalisation of medical marijuana, and are further researching and planning for it through a series of policies and bills. Although some patients are still resistant to the use of cannabis, with the development of technology and medical advancement, it is believed that more and more people will start to use cannabis products for treatment, and cannabis products will surely become a powerful weapon for human beings to fight against diseases!